WORLD ART 世 界 藝 術

組圖1:藝術挪用

藝術挪用~推動藝術發展, 後期的藝術挪用現象的發展行動破壞了藝術挪用早期的原則,即:幾乎不改變本體的借用。今天的藝術挪用其結果也是一種對原創和本體的解構。

 

​我今天和大家分享兩組圖,圖1是藝術挪用,圖2是藝術解構藝術解構使得挪用達到了另一個層面,對作品完全進行的遊戲行為的解構。

 

美國人有句話:It speaks the volume, the pictures speaks the volumes. (圖片自身具有強大的說服力)。通過讀圖即可理解藝術挪的魅力和其在西方的藝術現象極其普遍,而這些現象在大陸幾乎沒有發生。

“讀例圖而感挪用乃屬正常,但藝術思想應有不同的表達。達達藝術對前代大師作品的“破壞“代表著畫家對權威和以前審美的新觀察角度和挑戰。如果沒有思想的照抄就不屬於挪用範圍了。”

組圖2:藝術挪用到解構

Salvador Dalí

Lobster Telephone 1936 

Tate© Salvador Dali, Gala-Salvador Dali Foundation/DACS, London 2019

Composition with Fruit, Guitar and Glass, 1912, Pablo Picasso

Fountain 1917, photograph by Alfred Stieglitz

塞爾 · 杜尚(Marcel Duchamp)著名的L.H.O.O.Q.

爱德华 · 蒙克《呐喊》挪用項目:美國小學生作業

APPROPRIATION

Appropriation in art and art history refers to the practice of artists using pre-existing objects or images in their art with little transformation of the original.

By John Morgan

March 9th, 2019

由葉永青“抄襲”事件所想到的

 

藝術中的挪用 APPROPRIATION IN ART

藝術和藝術史上的挪用指的是:藝術家在藝術創作時,對本體在稍加改動基礎上的藝術創作行為。

- 約翰 · 摩根

使用挪用创作手法在艺术历史文学视觉艺术音乐表演艺术等)上发挥了重要作用。在视觉艺术领域,挪用意味着对人造视觉文化的整体或部分样本进行适当地采用、借用或循环利用。

挪用可追溯到1912年畢加索和喬治布拉克創作的立體派拼貼畫和建築,其中包括報紙等真實物品。法國藝術家馬塞爾 · 杜尚(Marcel Duchamp)於1915年創作的成品中,進一步發展了挪用這種技術。其中最具特點的是“臭名昭著”的噴泉~冠有標題的男人的小便池,以及其著名L.H.O.O.Q.和现成物艺术品Readymade。之後,超現實主義也廣泛使用了薩爾瓦多 · 達利的龍蝦電話等拼貼畫和物品的挪用。在20世紀50年代後期,適當的圖像和物體廣泛出現在Jasper Johns和Robert Rauschenberg的作品中以及流行藝術(pop art)中。

 

Appropriation can be tracked back to the cubist collages and constructions of Picasso and Georges Braque made from 1912 on, in which real objects such as newspapers were included to represent themselves. The practice was developed much further in the readymades created by the French artist Marcel Duchamp from 1915. Most notorious of these was Fountain, a men’s urinal signed, titled, and presented on a pedestal. Later, surrealism also made extensive use of appropriation in collages and objects such as Salvador Dalí’s Lobster Telephone. In the late 1950s appropriated images and objects appear extensively in the work of Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg, and in pop art.

然而,這個術語在20世紀80年代特被指某些美國藝術家而使用,成為他們的專屬詞語,這些藝術家是有Sherrie LevineNeo-Geo樂隊的藝術家,特別是Jeff Koons。 Sherrie Levine的作品,包括Claude MonetKasimir Malevich的作品。她的目的是為熟悉的形象創造一種新的情境situational context),從而創造一種新的含義或價值意義。

 

However, the term seems to have come into use specifically in relation to certain American artists in the 1980s, notably Sherrie Levine and the artists of the Neo-Geo group particularly Jeff Koons. Sherrie Levine reproduced as her own work other works of art, including paintings by Claude Monet and Kasimir Malevich. Her aim was to create a new situation, and therefore a new meaning or set of meanings, for a familiar image.

挪用藝術提出了原創性問題,真實性和作者性的問題,屬於長期的現代主義藝術傳統,質疑藝術本身的性質或定義。挪用藝術家受到1934年德國哲學家沃爾特 · 本傑明(Walter Benjamin)的論文“機械複製時代的藝術作品”的影響,並得到了美國評論家羅莎琳德 · 克勞斯在1985年出版的《先鋒派和現代主義者神話的原創性》一書的巨大支持。。

 

自20世紀80年代以來,藝術家廣泛使用了挪用的技法。

 

Appropriation art raises questions of originality, authenticity and authorship, and belongs to the long modernist tradition of art that questions the nature or definition of art itself. Appropriation artists were influenced by the 1934 essay by the German philosopher Walter Benjamin, The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, and received contemporary support from the American critic Rosalind Krauss in her 1985 book The Originality of the Avant-Garde and Other Modernist Myths.

 

Appropriation has been used extensively by artists since the 1980s.

What is the difference between copying and appropriation?

Artistic appropriation presents the work, or the concept behind the work, in a new light. Copying is not about a new way of seeing an image,

it is not being re interpreted or re contextualized. It is important for students to understand what constitutes derivative work(i.e

unimaginative copying or imitating) and what is a clever and original use of appropriation. For more on this topic go to Transcribing an Art

Work and look at Inspired not Copied

更多例證:

藝術挪用在概念藝術、STEM(STEM/STEAM教育研究。(Science科学、Technology技术、Engineering工程、Art艺术和Mathematic数学))以及音樂中也有大量的使用。

藝術挪用在美國K-12藝術課中的運用也十分廣泛,A Project to Help Teach Your Students About Appropriation(“通過完成具體項目,幫助你的學生理解藝術挪用的課題”),請見他們的作業。

教案上是這麼寫的:

挪用課題作業三部曲:

  1. 調查研究/Research

  2. 開始動手製作/Made

  3. ​展示:講解你的思想和創作哲學思考/Reflect

藝術挪用在漢字藝術研究中的啟示:

在西方藝術史論中,認為"挪用就是有意識的借用"(Appropriation is an intentional borrowing

基於對概念的理解和啟發,2010年,我創建了“漢字藝術與超現實主義繪畫的研究課題。從書法入手,挪用大量的書法作品來重新創作了超現實主義漢字,將漢字超現實主義化。

 

該研究組的成員是:德國超現實主義大師西蓓莉,中國著名書法家,文字學家趙宏以及我本人。

從上千幅作品中,我們選出了兩幅作品為例請大家理解。見下圖。

 

有關挪用的名言:

1)Every exploration is an appropriation.

每次探索都是挪用。

- Reland Barthes(Roland Barthes/1915~1980, 法國哲學家、理論家和符號學家)

2)Appropriation was the language of my generation in many ways. It came out of Duchamp, Warhol, Johns, Lichtenstein.

挪用在很多方面都是我这一代的语言。 杜尚,沃霍尔,约翰斯,利希滕斯坦講述這些語言。

Deborah Kass(美國當代藝術家/1952年生)

3)We all are influenced by things and copy things, but often where there is a certain level of copying, only the surface value ends up being reproduced and that becomes thinner and thinner. I feel like a lot of appropriation suffers from that.

Jason Fulford

我们都在接受大量的藝術复制的影响,沒有價值的複製,最终變得是那麼的膚淺,深受挪用其影响。

杰森富 · 尔福德  (美國當代攝影師/1972年生)

 

挪用概念領域中的流行詞語與觀念:

  • cultural appropriation

  • cultural appropriation in classical music 

  • history of cultural appropriation in fashion

  • cultural appropriation in fashion history

  • cultural appropriation in food

  • cultural appropriation in movies

  • Cultural Appropriation and difference, diversity and conservative 

  • How 'Diversity/ Appropriation' Is Tearing America Apart | The American Conservative

  • Cultural Appropriation: Theft or Innovation

  • Cultural Appropriation Without Cultural Essentialism?

  • 文化挪用

  • 古典音乐中的文化挪用

  • 时尚文化挪用史

  • 时尚史上的文化挪用

  • 食品中的文化挪用

  • 电影中的文化挪用

  • 文化挪用与差异,多元化与保守

  • “多元化/挪用”如何撕裂美国分离 美国保守党

  • 文化挪用:盗窃或创新

  • 没有文化本质主义的文化挪用?

結論:更多的留給讀者去思考......

在过去的十年中,挪用一词在许多学科的话语中已经普遍存在,但是 - 尽管它常在学术论证中出現 - 但它仍然在概念上不是十分稳定。在此我也只是簡單分享了关于挪用藝術的點滴知識,概念、歷史和範圍。在西方,挪用研究比較複雜。 “中世纪和早期现代例子所揭示的文化过程”。我们的目的是证明,正如Rhonda Knight在她的文章结论中所说的那样,“将前现代和现代的文化挪用思想放在彼此的对话中具有極大的重要性。”

在罗伯特 · 尼尔森(Robert S. Nelson )和理查德 · 希夫(Richard Shiff)的艺术史批评术语中,“挪用”这一术语值得撰写一篇大文章,尼尔森在其中解释说,“我关于挪用的论文特意在重新定位,因此要不斷批评前一篇有影响的文章“,挪用出现在文学研究的大量术语中。”在艺术史上,尼尔森的“挪用”文章發表後,緊隨其他人描寫贊同关于“原创性”的文章。因此,这两个不同条目的思想构成了辩证的双重性,挪用的概念参与在不同觀點的对话中,對話中迫使重新考虑“原创性”。

以上從分析了”挪用“基本定義等,以及其在各學科的滲透性,對比中國的藝術現狀,不難看出,在中國,挪用還未進入教育體系和學術探索和研究的層面,我嘗試著使用百度這個概念,看到的90%是資金和腐敗方面的挪用數據,而非像谷歌的第一個頁面出現的即是百科全書對”藝術挪用“定義的與詳解。

参考資料:

“漢字挪用實驗研究”構建了極古老與極當代的學術框架

金文「魚」字的挪用實驗研究/圖1書法:趙宏(中),圖2~4:西蓓莉(德)

篆書「龍」字的挪用與解構實驗研究:書法:趙宏(中),超現實主義「龍」/郵遞藝術:西蓓莉(德)

Joshua Oppenheimer(著名電影導演)的名言深深打動了我,他是這樣說的:

“如一個故事震撼了你的心,這種震撼是來自你對它的熟悉,而絕非它的新奇。”

— Joshua Oppenheimer

"If you think about why any story moves us,

it’s because of a quaking moment of recognition. It’s never the shock of the new, it’s the shock of the familiar."  

— Joshua Oppenheimer

以上兩幅圖,他們既對中國人熟悉,也對西方人熟悉......

“挪用的蛻變創造了令人熟悉的新的藝術” - 約翰 · 摩根

Appropriation of transformation creates new familiarity of art - John Morgan

(書法對於不熟悉的人有了熟悉感,使得文字藝術在西方的接受度和傳播成為可能,

這裏藝術挪用方法極其重要

-(此為 “己所不欲,勿施于人“。)

很久以來,我曾嘗試的課題有:中西靈魂大碰撞;中西合璧;蛻變等,這些題目是表達中西融合

的目的和傳遞一種漢字藝術是可以被理解和喜愛的信息,

“書法文化挪用與轉換研究”我們所研究核心

(注:在漢字藝術研究中挪用可發展至解構, 具有新意,“六書”是一種解構的理論基礎)

「群龍無首」的挪用與解構實驗研究:書法:趙宏(中),剪貼.Cut-outs:西蓓莉(德)

Appropriation in Art

點擊視頻觀看講座:藝術中的挪用

Presentation for Art Appreciation Class

 

To appropriate means to borrow, recycle, or copy an image for the purpose of a new creation. Appropriation has always been a part of visual culture. Despite the long history that artists have of borrowing and copying from what came before Appropriation is recognized as a postmodern art movement in which artists incorporated images or concepts from a historical, commercial, cultural or other precedent into their own work, almost always without the permission of the original creator. This does not mean the artists are plagiarizing. An appropriation artist wants you to recognize the image being appropriated Consider the work you are viewing- a work of appropriated Mona Lisas by Paul Giovanopoulous. from 2004, acrylic on canvas, two panels each 38 X 56 and called Mona Lisa A and Mona Lisa B. .

 

Ah, Mona Lisa! Marcel Duchamp, a leading artists of the early 20th century , famously appropriated the original in this work from 1919.

 

He took Leonardo Da Vinci's Mona Lisa from 1656, penciled in a mustache and beard and appended the title. The name, L.H.O.O.Q. is actually a pun to represent a French sentence which can be translated loosely as "She's got a fire down below". Marcel Duchamp is most famous for another scandalous work. It consisted of a porcelain urinal, repositioned with "R.Mutt" scrolled on it and called The Fountain. The work is regarded by many art historians and theorists as a major landmark in 20th century art.

 

The piece was submitted and rejected by the Society of Independent Artists in 1917. Marcel Duchamp resigned from the board in protest.

 

Marcel Duchamp, by taking a utilitarian object and reframing it to give it new conceptual and artistic context, permanently severed the link between the value of art and the labor of the artist. Look closely and observe the flowing lines and curves of the urinal. Behold, The Fountain, which many consider the most influential work of the 20th century.

 

Pablo Picasso also used appropriation. Consider this work from Las Meninas , a series of 56 paintings from 1957 in which Picasso has twisted, distorted and dissected the famous painting by the same name.

 

Now Let's look at the original from 1656. Las Meninas meaning "The Maids of Honor" was originally painted by Diego Velasquez, one of the most celebrated artists of the Spanish golden age.

 

Let's take a closer look at both works, side by side:

Not only did Picasso appropriate the work of other artists, but he had his own work appropriated. Take for example Robert Colesescotts, The young ladies of Alabama, 1985 which borrows it's composition and narrative from Pablo Picasso's infamous The young ladies of Avignon, 1907 One cannot help but to call to mind Picasso's famous quote "Good artists borrow. Great artists steal. "

 

Despite the important history of appropriation in art, it has been an artistic practice that has resulted in the contention of copyright issues. Andy Warhol, who is known as a leading figure in the pop art movement, is famous for his silk-screened images like this one of Marilyn Monroe from 1967. However, Andy Warhol faced a series of lawsuits from photographers whose work he had silk-screened. When he hung his silk-screened reinvention of photographer Paula Caulfield's flowers photos on the walls of a New York gallery in 1964, Caulfield noticed and threatened legal action. Andy Warhol settled out of court and agreed to pay Caulfield future royalties and gifted her two of the paintings.

 

On the other hand, Andy Warhol 1962 series of Campbell soup cans never faced any threat of legal action simply because unlike photographs and paintings, soup cans and paintings are not competing products. In this series, Warhol silkscreened 32 different Campbell soup cans , in an effort that asks the question: "Why can't a tin can of food found in millions of American homes be considered a work of art?"

 

Today, appropriation artists continue to challenge our notions of originality and force us to view our world from new and exciting perspectives. Appropriation artists continue to take the most mundane and utilitarian of objects and use them in new contexts which have us continually asking the question what is and what isn't art?

The Case for Copying | The Art Assignment | PBS Digital Studios

Sampling, appropriating, borrowing, stealing. Whatever you want to call it, artists have been copying since time immemorial. We look into the history of the practice, and share our theories of why it is done, and what it can offer us. To support our channel, or at least consider it: http://www.patreon.com/artassignment.

JOHN MORGAN (Weihong Yan)

​约翰 · 摩根简历 BIO OF JOHN MORGAN (Weihong Yan)

  • 艺术评论人、翻译者、策展人、美中教育、中国文化海外本土化及高级商业咨询顾问。

  • 现任美国世界中国学研究学会首席执行官;休 • 麦考(银行家,美国银行行长)当代艺术中心国际委员会主席,美国高等教育禅学会会员和北京外国语大学中国文化研究院研究员。

  • 2006~2017年,美国北卡州费佛尔大学文学院教授、中国学研究中心主任、第46所(现112所)孔子学院美方院长。

研究方向:

  • 中国文化国际传播学、中西美学与跨文化比较研究与推广。

  • 汉字书法文化与美国STEM/STEAM教育研究。(Science科学、Technology技术、Engineering工程、Art艺术和Mathematic数学)

  • 汉字书法超现实主义化与汉字书法的比较研究

  • 汉字书法文化与脑可塑性研究。

 

翻译:

  • 《说文解字》540部首,德文和英文翻译;

  • 英文翻译《汉字讲述的文明脉络》2014年中国最美的书。

John Morgan (Weihong Yan),

American curator, author, translator, US-China education, culture and Business Senior Consultant and strategic specialist and research professor of Chinese studies in Beijing Foreign Studies University, China. He is also the CEO of the World Association Chinese Studies.

Academic:

  1. International relations focus on Chinese studies.

  2. Chinese calligraphy and STEAM studies. 

  3. Surrealized chinese characters and its comparison studies.

  4. Chinese and Western aesthetics and cross-cultural research.

  5. ​Interdisciplinary studies of Chinese calligraphy and neuroplasticity. 

---------------------------------------------------------------------

Contact Info:

Weihong Yan

brmorganleeeann@gmail.com

86-13903511910 (China)

001-704-164-1616 (USA) 

Add: 4736 Hedgemore Dr. Unit P, Charlotte, NC 28209, USA.

​世界中國學研究會
The World Association for Chinese Studies
 

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